A sub-process is an element that contains other BPMN elements that define an additional process within the parent process.

Note: When a sub-process is executed as part of a process instance, it does not receive a new processInstanceId. The elements within the sub-process will be executed under the ID of the parent process. Process variables are also shared between a sub-process and its parent with no additional mapping required.

The following are sub-processes:

Expanded and collapsed sub-processes

Sub-processes are also known as embedded sub-processes can be expanded or collapsed. Elements for the sub-process can only be dragged into an expanded sub-process. Use the spanner icon against a sub-process to toggle between a collapsed and expanded state in the Modeling Application.

A sub-process requires a start and an end event. Only a standard start event can be used in embedded sub-processes. The sequence flow within a sub-process cannot cross its boundary without the sub-process completing. The advantage of a sub-process is that it creates its own scope within a process. This allows for boundary events to be attached to the sub-process.

Whilst expanded, sub-processes are graphically represented by a single, thin rounded rectangle with the other BPMN elements they contain visible.

Whilst collapsed, sub-processes are graphically represented by a single, thin rounded rectangle with a + symbol. The BPMN elements they contain are not visible in this state.

The XML representation of a sub-process is:

<bpmn2:subProcess id="SubProcess1">

Event sub-processes

Event sub-processes are triggered by an event and require a start and end event. As they are triggered by events an event sub-process can't be started by a standard start event. Instead start events such as error start events or message start events are used.

Start events attached to event sub-processes can also be set as interrupting or non-interrupting by using the isInterrupting property. See boundary events for details on interrupting and non-interrupting behaviour.

Event sub-processes are not connected to the main process flow as they can only be triggered by an event. The XML for an event sub-process contains the triggeredByEvent property set to true.

Event sub-processes can be placed at the process level or within another sub-process.

Event sub-processes are graphically represented by a single, thin dotted rectangle.

The XML representation of an event sub-process is:

<bpmn2:subProcess id="EventSubProcess2" triggeredByEvent="true">

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